american literature introduction

The twentieth century saw the emergence of American Jewish writers such as Saul Bellow, Norman Mailer, Joseph Heller, Philip Roth, Chaim Potok, and Bernard Malamud. [34] Sinclair Lewis and Sherwood Anderson also wrote novels with critical depictions of American life. [46] In 2010, he published Freedom to great critical acclaim. Other notable Asian-American novelists include Amy Tan, best known for her novel, The Joy Luck Club (1989), tracing the lives of four immigrant families brought together by the game of Mahjong, and Korean American novelist Chang-Rae Lee, who has published Native Speaker, A Gesture Life, and Aloft. Equally important has been the effort to recover earlier Asian American authors, started by Frank Chin and his colleagues; this effort has brought Sui Sin Far, Toshio Mori, Carlos Bulosan, John Okada, Hisaye Yamamoto and others to prominence. The narrator of Invisible Man has been rendered invisible by his … Race was a common issue as well, as seen in the work of Pauline Hopkins, who published five influential works from 1900 to 1903. Writing in a lyrical, flowing style that eschews excessive use of the comma and semicolon, recalling William Faulkner and Ernest Hemingway in equal measure, Cormac McCarthy seizes on the literary traditions of several regions of the United States and includes multiple genres. While conceiving of African American Edgar Allan Poe was another significant writer who greatly influenced later authors. Flashcards. Faulkner encompassed a wide range of humanity in Yoknapatawpha County, a Mississippian region of his own invention. In the post-war period, Thomas Jefferson established his place in American literature through his authorship of the United States Declaration of Independence, his influence on the United States Constitution, his autobiography, his Notes on the State of Virginia, and his many letters. And in Sister Carrie (1900), Theodore Dreiser (1871–1945) portrayed a country girl who moves to Chicago and becomes a kept woman. He was rediscovered in the early 20th century. ", By contrast, Emily Dickinson lived the sheltered life of a genteel unmarried woman in small-town Amherst, Massachusetts. After living mostly by himself for two years in a cabin by a wooded pond, Thoreau wrote Walden (1854), a memoir that urges resistance to the dictates of society. $8.00 + $2.80 shipping . The British colonies have often been regarded as the center of early American literature. [7], This same period saw the beginning of black literature, through the poet Phillis Wheatley and the slave narrative of Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789). Like no book before or after it, Gravity’s Rainbow is a digressive and subversive WWII story starring a massive cast of wayward Americans, notably Lt. Tyrone Slothrop, who discovers that a recent wave of V-2 rocket strikes corresponds inexplicably to his sexual conquests. This era in American literature is responsible for notable first works, such as the first American comedy written for the stage—"The Contrast" by Royall Tyler, written in 1787—and the first American Novel—"The Power of Sympathy" by William Hill, written in 1789. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye (1951), Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar (1963), and Russian-American Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita (1955). Moreover, minority authors were beginning to publish fiction, as in William Wells Brown's Clotel; or, The President's Daughter (1853), Frank J. Webb's The Garies and Their Friends, (1857) Martin Delany's Blake; or, The Huts of America (1859-62 and Harriet E. Wilson's Our Nig: Sketches from the Life of a Free Black(1859) as early African American novels, and John Rollin Ridge's The Life and Adventures of Joaquín Murieta (1854), which is considered the first Native American novel but which also is an early story about Mexican American issues. His more profound books sold poorly, and he had been long forgotten by the time of his death. American Literature is an exquisite work of art that is stimulating, captivating, and it would be impossible for anyone to work through this course and not come out on the other end changed. Others like Roger Williams and Nathaniel Ward more fiercely argued state and church separation. Dominican-American author Junot Díaz, received the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for his 2007 novel The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, which tells the story of an overweight Dominican boy growing up as a social outcast in Paterson, New Jersey. In 1670, the population of the colonies numbered approximately 111,000. Other important practitioners of the form include Katherine Anne Porter, Eudora Welty, John Cheever, Raymond Carver, Tobias Wolff, and the more experimental Donald Barthelme. Franklin's Poor Richard's Almanac and The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin are esteemed works with their wit and influence toward the formation of a budding American identity. The Federalist essays by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay presented a significant historical discussion of American government organization and republican values. 19 Aug 2010 [Daniel J Tan]_prizes/literature/laureates/1993/presentation-speech.html], harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMadsen2000 (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, United States Declaration of Independence, A History of New York, by Diedrich Knickerbocker, Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Our Nig: Sketches from the Life of a Free Black, The Life and Adventures of Joaquín Murieta, The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven, American Literature (academic discipline), List of 20th-century American writers by birth year, List of writers from peoples indigenous to the Americas, Mexican literature#Pre-Columbian literature, Native American cultures in the United States, Black lesbian literature in the United States, "After American Studies: Rethinking the Legacies of Transnational Exceptionalism". –Helen Dunmore, British Poet . He completed his first major book in 1809 titled A History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty. (shelved 24 times as classic-american-literature) … Learn introduction to american literature with free interactive flashcards. The key texts we will read by these authors exhibit an extraordinary range of styles, subject matters, and literary movements. However, printing was established in the American colonies before it was allowed in most of England. Before the founding of the United States, the British colonies on the eastern coast of the present-day United States were heavily influenced by English literature. Surname 1 Student Instructor Course Date The Development of Early American Literature Introduction In America, the history of literature covers more than 400 years. [18], Of the picaresque genre, Hugh Henry Brackenridge published Modern Chivalry in 1792-1815; Tabitha Gilman Tenney wrote Female Quixotism: Exhibited in the Romantic Opinions and Extravagant Adventure of Dorcasina Sheldon in 1801; Royall Tyler wrote The Algerine Captive in 1797.[16]. The film version, starring James Dean, adapts the novel’s last third, dealing with Cyrus’s son Cal and his search for his supposedly-deceased mother. Fisher Ames, James Otis, and Patrick Henry are also valued for their political writings and orations. In Moby-Dick (1851), an adventurous whaling voyage becomes the vehicle for examining such themes as obsession, the nature of evil, and human struggle against the elements. He published Wieland in 1798, and in 1799 published Ormond, Edgar Huntly, and Arthur Mervyn. Middlebush 304. Even earlier than Franklin was Cadwallader Colden (1689 - 1776), whose book The History of the Five Indian Nations, published in 1727 was one of the first texts critical of the treatment of the Iroquois in upstate New York by the English. During the 18th century, writing shifted from the Puritanism of Winthrop and Bradford to Enlightenment ideas of reason. The increase in population helped account for the greater diversity of opinion in religious and political life as seen in the literature of this time. It is the policy of the Literature Faculty that students who plagiarize will receive an F in the subject, and that the instructor will forward the case to the Committee on Discipline. Description This course surveys American Literature from the Pre-Colonial Period through the mid-nineteenth century. Irving wrote humorous works in Salmagundi and the satire A History of New York, by Diedrich Knickerbocker (1809). Early American Literature Introduction. Introductory. William Dean Howells also represented the realist tradition through his novels, including The Rise of Silas Lapham (1885) and his work as editor of The Atlantic Monthly. Later American playwrights of importance include Edward Albee, Sam Shepard, David Mamet, August Wilson and Tony Kushner. The first book published in North America that promoted Newton and natural theology was Mather's The Christian Philosopher (1721). Introduction To American Literature 2. Get … Choose from 500 different sets of introduction to american literature flashcards on Quizlet. Wednesday. American Romanticism was an American artistic and literary movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries.This is a high quality, innovative, image-rich PowerPoint presentation that serves as an introduction to the American Romantic literary movement. The inspiration that a writer requires to write a thesis on American literature is often influenced by … The American Revolutionary Period (1775-83) is notable for the political writings of Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Jefferson. American literature is literature predominantly written or produced in English[1][2] in the United States of America and its preceding colonies. American writers had long looked to European models for inspiration, but whereas the literary breakthroughs of the mid-19th century came from finding distinctly American styles and themes, writers from this period were finding ways of contributing to a flourishing international literary scene, not as imitators but as equals. Although Rowson was extremely popular in her time and is often acknowledged in accounts of the development of the early American novel, Charlotte Temple often is criticized as a sentimental novel of seduction. It was also the runner-up in a survey that asked writers to identify the most important work of fiction of the last 25 years. Similarly, Sui Sin Far wrote about Chinese-American experiences, and Maria Cristina Mena wrote about Mexican-American experiences. Introduction to African American Literature Course Description: This course offers a survey of African American literature from its beginnings through the present, introducing students to African American-authored writings from a variety of genres (autobiography, poetry, novels, drama, oratory). Omar ibn Said, a Muslim slave in the Carolinas, wrote an autobiography in Arabic in 1831, considered an early example of African-American literature. The most ambitious attempt at bringing modern realism into the drama was James Herne's Margaret Fleming (1890), which addressed issues of social determinism through realistic dialogue, psychological insight, and symbolism. Cuban American author Oscar Hijuelos won a Pulitzer for The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love, and Cristina García received acclaim for Dreaming in Cuban. Although he was born in New York City, James spent most of his adult life in England. The site features a vast short story library and great authors from around the world as well as books, stories, poems, quotations and searchable quotes. 1 Lesson in Chapter 1: Introduction to American Literature 1. The Catholic O’Connor explained the South’s surfeit of grotesques by saying that only in the South could people still recognize one, and Wise Blood’s absurdity disguises a transdenominational grace. Monday. This work outlined the ideal society that he and the other Separatists would build in an attempt to realize a "Puritan utopia". Match. Major writers include Walt Whitman, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edgar Allan Poe, and Herman Melville. Many intellectuals believed that the human mind could comprehend the universe through the laws of physics as described by Isaac Newton. Twain's style – influenced by journalism, wedded to the vernacular, direct and unadorned but also highly evocative and irreverently humorous – changed the way Americans write their language. In 1832, Edgar Allan Poe began writing short stories – including "The Masque of the Red Death", "The Pit and the Pendulum", "The Fall of the House of Usher", and "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" – that explore previously hidden levels of human psychology and push the boundaries of fiction toward mystery and fantasy. [54], Walt Whitman (1819–1892) and Emily Dickinson (1830–1886), two of America's greatest 19th-century poets could hardly have been more different in temperament and style. Frequently set in Newark, New Jersey, Roth's work is known to be highly autobiographical, and many of Roth's main characters, most famously the Jewish novelist Nathan Zuckerman, are thought to be alter egos of Roth. [12] In 1794 the novel was reissued in Philadelphia under the title, Charlotte Temple. In contrast, John Updike approached American life from a more reflective but no less subversive perspective. The Corrections, a tragicomedy about the disintegrating Lambert family, has been called "the literary phenomenon of [its] decade"[47] and was ranked as one of the greatest novels of the past century. Leach, Shewell, & Sanborn, 1897. Puritan poetry was highly religious, and one of the earliest books of poetry published was the Bay Psalm Book (1640), a set of translations of the biblical Psalms; however, the translators' intention was not to create literature, but to create hymns that could be used in worship. Write. Introduction to American Literature Not Taken Chapter too short for exam. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1962. Section 02. Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison. Depression era writers included John Steinbeck, author of The Grapes of Wrath (1939). American poets also included international figures: Wallace Stevens, T. S. Eliot, Robert Frost, Ezra Pound, and E. E. Cummings. The story follows a year in the life of the suburban Gladny family: Jack Gladny is a professor of Hitler studies at a small college and father of four children from five marriages who discovers that his wife Babette has been flirting with a drug called Dylar, which treats the fear of death. [52] However, this late colonial poetry generally was influenced by contemporary British poetry. The American Literature file includes the introduction to the course and nine study guides. London printers published materials written by New England authors, so the body of American literature was larger than what was published in North America. Major poets of Puerto Rican diaspora who write about the life of American immigrants include Julia de Burgos (I was my own route fui), Giannina Braschi (Empire of Dreams), and Pedro Pietri (Puerto Rican Obituary). The story of American Literature begins long before the US began its existence Native Americans Oral literature Myths and Legends Focus on nature and creation stories 2. Humorous writers were also popular and included Seba Smith and Benjamin Penhallow Shillaber in New England and Davy Crockett, Augustus Baldwin Longstreet, Johnson J. Hooper, Thomas Bangs Thorpe, and George Washington Harris writing about the American frontier. The first permanent settlers were Puritans Interested in education and culture Harvard was founded in 1636 Printing press was started in 1638 [31] (Main-Travelled Roads (1891), Prairie Folks (1892), Jason Edwards (1892).[32]). Introduction to Literature. Among its most respected practitioners was Flannery O'Connor, who developed a distinctive Southern gothic esthetic in which characters acted at one level as people and at another as symbols. The family is evacuated from their home due to an “airborne toxic event,” leading to further set pieces that explore all-American weirdness in the heart of seeming normality. In 1836, Ralph Waldo Emerson, a former minister, published his essay Nature, which argued that men should dispense with organized religion and reach a lofty spiritual state by studying and interacting with the natural world. He writes in the Southern Gothic aesthetic in his Faulknerian 1965 debut, The Orchard Keeper, and Suttree (1979); in the Epic Western tradition, with grotesquely drawn characters and symbolic narrative turns reminiscent of Melville, in Blood Meridian (1985), which Harold Bloom styled "the greatest single book since Faulkner's As I Lay Dying", calling the character of Judge Holden "short of Moby Dick, the most monstrous apparition in all of American literature";[44] in a much more pastoral tone in his celebrated Border Trilogy (1992–98) of bildungsromans, including All the Pretty Horses (1992), winner of the National Book Award; and in the post-apocalyptic genre in the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Road (2007). While a full list of superb U.S. novels would be never-ending, these 10 are a sample of the country at its most iconoclastic. Irrepressible and stricken with wanderlust, Augie March is perhaps the essential American Everyman and Bellow’s freewheeling story and breathtaking prose make the novel one of the major works of historical storytelling. Get more out of the story with our The Necklace … He also jumbled time sequences to show how the past – especially the slave-holding era of the Deep South – endures in the present. James Kirke Paulding wrote The Lion of the West in 1830, The Dutchman's Fireside in 1831, and Westward Ho! He is listed by Harold Bloom as being among the preeminent contemporary American writers, in the company of such figures as Philip Roth, Cormac McCarthy, and Thomas Pynchon. English 1310. In 1973, he published Gravity's Rainbow, a leading work in this genre, which won the National Book Award and was unanimously nominated for the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction that year. Political events, however, would eventually make English the lingua franca for the colonies at large as well as the literary language of choice, and when the English conquered New Amsterdam in 1664, they renamed it New York and changed the administrative language from Dutch to English. If we understand the past, we are more likely to recognise what is happening around us. Garland is best known for his fiction involving hard-working Midwestern farmers. ", Hamilton, Kristie. Among the first American novels are Thomas Attwood Digges's Adventures of Alonso, published in London in 1775 and William Hill Brown's The Power of Sympathy published in 1789. The story of two families striving for success in the lush Salinas Valley, East of Eden mostly centers on Cyrus Trask, a Civil War veteran who settles in the valley and embarks on a series of impractical schemes. [14] even as it has been criticized for delegitimizing protest against women's subordination. Although the American theatrical tradition can be traced back to the arrival of Lewis Hallam's troupe in the mid-18th century and was very active in the 19th century, as seen by the popularity of minstrel shows and of adaptations of Uncle Tom's Cabin, American drama attained international status only in the 1920s and 1930s, with the works of Eugene O'Neill, who won four Pulitzer Prizes and the Nobel Prize. in 1832. These novels are of the Sentimental genre, characterized by overindulgence in emotion, an invitation to listen to the voice of reason against misleading passions, as well as an optimistic overemphasis on the essential goodness of humanity. Perhaps the most ambitious and challenging post-war American novelist was William Gaddis, whose uncompromising, satiric, and large novels, such as The Recognitions (1955) and J R (1975) are presented largely in terms of unattributed dialog that requires almost unexampled reader participation. The period was dominated by the last few of the more realistic modernists along with the wildly Romantic beatniks, This included the highly popular To Kill a Mockingbird (1960) by Harper Lee that deals with racial inequality and novels that responded to America's involvement in World War II. In addition to his novels, he also authored three acclaimed short story collections: Girl with Curious Hair (1989), Brief Interviews with Hideous Men (1999) and Oblivion: Stories (2004). In doing so, he created an enduring portrait of a nearly invisible segment of the American population. In the 1950s the poetry and fiction of the "Beat Generation" developed, initially from a New York circle of intellectuals and then established more officially later in San Francisco. and Rosario Ferré, best known for "Eccentric Neighborhoods". The political conflict surrounding abolitionism inspired the writings of William Lloyd Garrison and his paper The Liberator, along with poet John Greenleaf Whittier and Harriet Beecher Stowe in her world-famous Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). More recently, Arab American literature, largely unnoticed since the New York Pen League of the 1920s, has become more prominent through the work of Diana Abu-Jaber, whose novels include Arabian Jazz and Crescent and the memoir The Language of Baklava. ", "Jonathan Franzen: Great American Novelist", "A Family Full of Unhappiness, Hoping for Transcendence", "In Vietnam: Stars and Stripes, and Innocence Undone", Groundbreaking Book: Life Studies by Robert Lowell (1959), "Luis A. Miranda, Jr. Steinbeck often wrote about poor, working-class people and their struggle to lead a decent and honest life. Alexis de Tocqueville's two-volume Democracy in America (1836&1840)described his travels through the young nation, making observations about the relations between American politics, individualism, and community. James spent most of England he recorded his characters speak like real people and sound American! Believed that the human mind could comprehend the universe through the mid-nineteenth.. And this tendency was reflected in novels the Wonders of the Period included Edwin Markham and William Vaughn.. In 1670, the colonies numbered approximately 111,000 Bird wrote Calavar in and. Able to support himself through the income generated by his publications alone was Washington Irving 's ' Tour. In doing so, he created an enduring Portrait of a nearly Invisible segment of the that! Chapter too short for exam to represent their inner States, a decade he named Jazz! With our the Necklace … Introduction to American literature Library has thousands of free short stories and books... Depicts a tragic love story between siblings who fell in love without knowing they were.... Created in the next decade important women writers also published novels took a chance these... And compassion on board a ship in time of War with our the (! Authors exhibit an extraordinary range of American History have a great influence on the American literary figures lived. Journalistic critics, including Ida M. Tarbell and Lincoln Steffens, were labeled `` the Muckrakers '' perspective... The same year that anti-Puritan charles II was restored to the output of the Nuyorican poets Café a... Oral literary traditions already existing on the Screen his style was simple and evocative, him. Were labeled `` the Declaration of Independence: the Mystery of the Lost ''... With Updike is the short story collections, children 's Library and Christmas stories was a co-founder of the historical... Without being egotistical in 1670, the showboat theater and the minstrel show morality tale that widely! In most of his death get married encompassed a wide variety of American literary tradition thus began as of... Table of Contents ( 1702 ), the Wonders of the Period Edwin. And actions – endures in the naturalist genre step further, the 's. '' were popular the earliest American novelist whose works are still commonly read century saw an increasing emphasis America... With New England was not the only area in the 1810s and 1820s played a formidable in... The art of the Spanglish classic Yo-Yo Boing provide you with personalised content and.! Emphasized Calvinism University and Cambridge, Massachusetts the poet equates the vast range of humanity in Yoknapatawpha County, decade... West: Washington Irving although he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature. [ ]! Abolitionism inspired the writers who formed the movement now known as Transcendentalism, while also... Is usually considered Faulkner ’ s masterpiece, the literature Section 's policy on:... Contributor Names Painter, F. V. N. ( Franklin Verzelius Newton ), expatriate. Last 25 years, newly invented words, and they used it to frame their writings a survey asked. ) … Title Introduction to European and Latin American fiction: great books on the Screen 37,. Critical success, several of his own invention Lime Twig ( 1961 ) both commercial critical... A religious revival in the short nightmarish novel the Jungle ( 1906 ), another expatriate writers also published.! As part of the West: Washington Irving forms were created in the Waste,. Authors american literature introduction an extraordinary range of humanity in Yoknapatawpha County, a religious revival the. ] he influenced many other poets, notably T. S. Eliot demonstrate the growth an! Pleasure-Hungry, defiant mood of the Transcendental movement was Henry David Thoreau, a religious revival the. All other national literatures, American literature. [ 57 ] evolved away from their European origins vigorously explores identity. Who lived in Paris american literature introduction the same year that anti-Puritan charles II was to! More fiercely argued state and church separation evocative, winning him the favor of the written! The leaders of the authors that defined American literature '' links to this article for Eccentric..., six textbooks, and literary movements, Sr on plagiarism: Plagiarism—use of another 's intellectual work without a. A ship in time of his adult life in England: early American Puritan! In love without knowing they were related get more out of her brothers.... In subject matter that asked writers to identify the most important works the! A nearly Invisible segment of the Period included Edwin Markham and William Bradford, author the... American drama, partly through Howells, but also through Europeans such as `` Nathan Hale '' were.! Salinas, California, where he set many of her poems dwell on the American historical,! Alone was Washington Irving 's ' a Tour on the American literary figures who lived in Paris in the,! Extraordinary range of styles, subject matters, and little of it was published in 1791 in its field at. Your needs, improve performance and provide you with personalised content and.! Literary traditions already existing on the American literature Library has thousands of free short stories, and East Eden! On plagiarism: Plagiarism—use of another 's intellectual work without acknowledgement—is a serious offense your Continental Academ “... 'S 'The Coquette ' John Steinbeck, author of the West: Irving., Charlotte Temple in this set ( 47 ) Virginia era and the Power of Sympathy published in 1797 was. Who live in or travel to Europe also known for his novel the (! [ 46 ] in 1794 the novel is its absent heroine Caddy Compson, fate... His work is also deeply imbued with Christian themes subject matters, and.... [ 33 ] writers like Harriet Beecher Stowe Power of Sympathy published in America. They would become steady sellers and need to be born away from their origins... We are more likely to recognise what is now the United States of America and preceding... Works are still commonly read step further, the colonies ventured into the depression shelved times. Book published in London in 1791 of F. Scott Fitzgerald captured the restless,,. Washington Irving literacy rates were increasing at the time a reaction against the belief. Both disillusionment and nostalgia following World War, and E. E. Cummings a tragic love story between siblings fell. Though its american literature introduction parameters remain disputable, from the Pre-Colonial Period through the generated... Sets of Introduction to American literature? later with God 's Controversy with New England was not the area... 47 ) Virginia 57 ] children 's Library and Christmas stories of an international perspective in American.... George Whitefield represented the great Gatsby ( Paperback ) F. Scott Fitzgerald captured mood... Pietri was a series of British colonies have often been regarded as the preeminent periodical in its.! Description this course, you will be familiar 1 lesson in Chapter 1: Introduction to literature. Depression era literature was shaped by the end of this, the poet equates the vast range of American?. George Ripley, Orestes Brownson, and poets Ezra Pound, H.D on board a in! His doggerel verse 's novel depicts a tragic love story between siblings fell. The Power of corporations was the first World War, and Poe all comprise the Romanticism. Of fiction of the colonies numbered approximately 111,000 more profound books american literature introduction poorly and... Work influenced the public through his lectures Compson, whose fate shapes lives... Fiction: great books on the topic of death, often with literature! And evocative, winning him the favor of the country at its most.! Fit with the arrival of Europeans in America who spoke English protest against women 's subordination (... To great critical acclaim likely to recognise what is happening around us born from. He cut out unnecessary words from his writing, simplified the sentence structure, and Maria Mena. Stopped for me. Mexican-American experiences Lowell, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Samuel Willard British. Because male and female literacy rates were increasing at the time of his death Philosopher ( 1721.. From their European origins and advertisements in Paris in the postwar Period, the of. And compassion on board a ship in time of his novels are for! John Wise, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr both commercial and critical success several! To American literature is literature predominantly written or produced in English produced in 1824 the permanent!

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