The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Christianity, and other religious beliefs.  The Druze allow divorce, although it is discouraged; circumcision is not necessary; they cannot be reborn as non-Druze; those who purify and perfect their soul ascend to the stars upon death; when al-Hakim returns, all faithful Druze will join him in his march from China and on to conquer the world; apostasy is forbidden; they usually have religious services on Thursday evenings, and follow Sunni Hanafi law on issues which their own faith has no particular rulings about.. The Druze faith is one of the major religious groups in the Levant, with between 800,000 and a million adherents. Are druze arabs?I have heard someone say that you are purest arabs.What are your thoughts on your ethnicity before your identity as ethno-religious group became distinct? The Maronite Catholic and the Druze founded modern Lebanon in the early eighteenth century, through the ruling and social system known as the "Maronite-Druze dualism" in Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate..  To this end, al-Shishakli encouraged the stigmatization of minorities. After the assassination of Kamal Jumblatt on 16 March 1977, his son Walid Jumblatt took the leadership of the party and played an important role in preserving his father's legacy after winning the Mountain War and sustained the existence of the Druze community during the sectarian bloodshed that lasted until 1990. Mate is often the first item served when entering a Druze home. The Druze A secretive religion tries to secure its future. The faith was preached by Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad, an Ismaili mystic and scholar from Zozan, Khorasan, in the Samanid Empire. The colours also appear on the Druze flag. , Both religions venerated Shuaib and Muhammad: Shuaib (Jethro) is revered as the chief prophet in the Druze religion, , In their desire to maintain a rigid confession of unity, they stripped from God all attributes (tanzīh). Through a clever policy of bribery and warfare, he extended his domains to cover all of modern Lebanon, some of Syria and northern Galilee. The Imad family is named for al-Imadiyyah—the Kurdish town of Amadiya, northeast of Mosul inside Kurdistan, and, like the Jumblatts, is thought to be of Kurdish tribal origin, the Janpulad ("soul of steel") are still found east of Adana in Turkey, across the borders from Syria. 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In 1660, the Ottoman Empire moved to reorganize the region, placing the sanjaks (districts) of Sidon-Beirut and Safed in a newly formed province of Sidon, a move seen by local Druze as an attempt to assert control.  One influential Islamic sage of that time[who?] The Druze faith extended to many areas in the Middle East, but most of the modern Druze can trace their origin to the Wadi al-Taym in Southern Lebanon, which is named after an Arab tribe Taymour-Allah (formerly Taymour-Allat) which, according to Islamic historian al-Tabari, first came from the Arabian Peninsula into the valley of the Euphrates where they had been Christianized prior to their migration into the Lebanon. They make up roughly 2% of the country’s population and most live in the northern regions of the Galilee, Carmel and the Golan Heights. Israel’s Druze honor the prophet Jethro in annual pilgrimage to ancient tomb Holiday gives visitors a glimpse of secretive religion, and community’s ‘living bond’ with Israeli Jews [page needed]. This led to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of ad-Darazi and his supporters.  The second largest political party supported by Druze is the Lebanese Democratic Party led by Prince Talal Arslan, the son of Lebanese independence hero Emir Majid Arslan. Traditionally the Druze women have played an important role both socially and religiously inside the community. The soul embodies the mind and is responsible for transmigration and the character of oneself. It is difficult to know as you cannot join and the religion — if that’s what it is — is secret. Can you name the Seven Prophets of the Druze? However, it has been argued that these two factions were of a political nature, rather than ethnic, and had both Christian and Druze supporters.  Ahmad however emerged victorious in the power struggle among the Druze in 1667, but the Maʿnīs lost control of Safad and retreated to controlling the iltizam of the Shuf mountains and Kisrawan. He also declared that confiscation of Druze property and even the death sentence would conform to the laws of Islam.  In 2004, there were 102,000 Druze living in the country. Several philosophers and other influential people are also held in high regard by the Druze, including Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and Alexander the Great.  It is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad and the sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, and Zeno of Citium. A Druze cannot be reincarnated in the body of a non-Druze. The head is the Jabal Druze, if I crush the head the serpent will die" (Seale 1963:132). Before and during the Lebanese Civil War (1975–90), the Druze were in favor of Pan-Arabism and Palestinian resistance represented by the PLO. The main Druze doctrine states that God is both transcendent and immanent, in which he is above all attributes, but at the same time, he is present. Pew Research Center received helpful guidance on the Druze from Alexander Henley, American Druze Foundation Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies at Georgetown University. April 2013 version. In 1016 ad-Darazi and his followers openly proclaimed their beliefs and called people to join them, causing riots in Cairo against the Unitarian movement including Hamza bin Ali and his followers. This is like one's image in the mirror: One is in the mirror, but does not become the mirror. About six-in-ten Druze men included in our survey say they have served (45%) or currently are serving (15%) in the Israeli military. When this occurs, the soul is united with the Cosmic Mind and achieves the ultimate happiness.. Traditional snacks eaten with mate include raisins, nuts, dried figs, biscuits, and chips. Al-ʻuqqāl have equal rights to al-Juhhāl, but establish a hierarchy of respect based on religious service. They soon made an alliance with the Ma'ans and were acknowledged as the Druze chiefs in Wadi al-Taym. The two faiths share a common place of origin in the Middle East and consider themselves to be monotheistic. Druze Sacred texts include the Qur'an and the Kitab Al Hikma (Epistles of Wisdom). They are said to have descended from Jethro, the priest of Midian who was Moses’ father-in-law (Exodus 18:1), and they recognize him as their principal prophet and founder of their religion. This time the prince decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Ali in Wadi al-Taym was the beginning of his defeat. Druze reject polygamy, believe in reincarnation, and are not obliged to observe most of the religious rituals. 3. p.277, Barnay, Y. The divine call or unitarian call is the Druze period of time that was opened at sunset on Thursday 30 May 1017 by the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah and closed in 1043 by al-Muqtana Baha'uddin, henceforth prohibiting anyone else from converting to the Druze faith. He accused the entire community of treason, at times claiming they were agents of the British and Hashimites, at others that they were fighting for Israel against the Arabs. (+1) 202-419-4300 | Main This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 03:51. Subsequently, the Druze chiefs of the Gharb placed their considerable military experience at the disposal of the Mamluk rulers of Egypt (1250–1516); first, to assist them in putting an end to what remained of Crusader rule in coastal Levant, and later to help them safeguard the Lebanese coast against Crusader retaliation by sea. [page needed], He forcibly integrated minorities into the national Syrian social structure, his "Syrianization" of Alawite and Druze territories had to be accomplished in part using violence, he declared: "My enemies are like serpent. He even produced a cache of Israeli weapons allegedly discovered in the Jabal. . , During the Ottoman–Habsburg War (1683–1699), Ahmad Ma'n collaborated in a rebellion against the Ottomans which extended beyond his death. Not many documents and information on this practice are released to people outside the religion.  The largest massacre was at Antioch, where 5000 prominent Druze were killed, followed by that of Aleppo. In our survey, fewer than 1% of married Israeli Druze say they have a spouse or partner from outside their religion. After the Shehab dynasty converted to Christianity, the Druze community and feudal leaders came under attack from the regime with the collaboration of the Catholic Church, and the Druze lost most of their political and feudal powers. But when asked if their Druze identity is mainly a matter of religion, culture or ancestry – or a combination of these elements – roughly eight-in-ten say being Druze is either essentially about ancestry or culture (33%) or a combination of religion and ancestry/culture (47%). The word Dogziyin ("Druzes") occurs in an early Hebrew edition of his travels, but it is clear that this is a scribal error. The two faiths share a common place of origin in the Middle East, and consider themselves to be monotheistic.. Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Druze is a small but major religion found in the Middle East, especially in Lebanon, Syria and Israel.  The Druze faith incorporates elements of Isma'ilism, a branch of Shia Islam, Gnosticism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Neoplatonism, Pythagoreanism, and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology based on an esoteric interpretation of scripture, which emphasises the role of the mind and truthfulness.  Reincarnations occur instantly at one's death because there is an eternal duality of the body and the soul and it is impossible for the soul to exist without the body. Male ʻuqqāl often grow mustaches, and wear dark Levantine-Turkish traditional dresses, called the shirwal, with white turbans that vary according to the seniority of the ʻuqqāl. The civil war was not therefore a religious war, except in Damascus, where it spread and where the vastly non-Druze population was anti-Christian. Some scholars claim that the Biblical Jethro could not have been the father/founder of the Druze religion (about 1015 CE) as the Biblical Jethro lived about 1400 BCE, being somewhat older than Moses.That date greatly predates the founding of Islam related religions (about 610 CE) by thousands of years. Under Fakhr-al-Dīn II (Fakhreddin II), the Druze dominion increased until it included Lebanon-Phoenicia and almost all Syria, extending from the edge of the Antioch plain in the north to Safad in the south, with a part of the Syrian desert dominated by Fakhr-al-Din's castle at Tadmur (Palmyra), the ancient capital of Zenobia. The Shihab leadership continued until the middle of the 19th century and culminated in the illustrious governorship of Amir Bashir Shihab II (1788–1840) who, after Fakhr-al-Din, was the most powerful feudal lord Lebanon produced. This led the Ottoman government to agree to an arrangement whereby the different nahiyes (districts) of the Chouf would be granted in iltizam ("fiscal concession") to one of the region's amirs, or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and order and the collection of its taxes in the area in the hands of the appointed amir. When Druze live among people of other religions, they try to blend in, in order to protect their religion and their own safety. The Ma'an tribe, which superseded the Tanukhs and produced the greatest Druze hero, Fakhr-al-Din, had the same traditional origin. In 1618 political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many enemies of Fakhr-al-Din from power, signaling the prince's triumphant return to Lebanon soon afterwards. About seven-in-ten Druze (72%) say their religious identity is very important to them. The Druze are Arabic-speaking citizens of Israel and serve in the Israel Defense Forces, just as most citizens do in Israel. , Consequently, the 16th and 17th centuries were to witness a succession of armed Druze rebellions against the Ottomans, countered by repeated Ottoman punitive expeditions against the Chouf, in which the Druze population of the area was severely depleted and many villages destroyed. To complete the subscription process, please click the link in the email we just sent you. Today, 1 million-plus members of this community live primarily in Syria and Lebanon and, to a lesser extent, in Israel and Jordan. Arabic-speaking esoteric ethno-religious group, Druze as a mixture of Western Asian tribes, Dwairy, Marwan (2006) "The Psychosocial Function of Reincarnation Among Druze in Israel", Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-expression - Page 95 by Mordechai Nisan, The Druze in the Middle East: Their Faith, Leadership, Identity and Status - Page 41 by Nissim Dana, Encyclopaedic Survey of Islamic Culture - Page 94 by Mohamed Taher, Asian and African Studies: Vol. At the end of the 17th century (1697) the Shihabs succeeded the Ma'ans in the feudal leadership of Druze southern Lebanon, although they reportedly professed Sunni Islam, they showed sympathy with Druzism, the religion of the majority of their subjects. In terms of religious comparison, mainstream Christian denominations do not believe in reincarnation or the transmigration of the soul, unlike the Druze. [page needed], In 1967, a community of Druze in the Golan Heights came under Israeli control, today numbering 23,000 (in 2019). The Sabq and Tali is the ability to perceive and learn from the past and plan for the future and predict it. Jumblatt's post-2005 position diverged sharply from the tradition of his family. , The second type of religious shrine is one associated with the anniversary of a historic event or death of a prophet. Muhammad is regarded as the last prophet sent by God in Islam, and in the Druze faith, Muhammad is considered an important prophet of God, being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history. , In 1043, al-Muqtana Baha'uddin declared that the sect would no longer accept new pledges, and since that time proselytism has been prohibited awaiting al-Hakim's return at the Last Judgment to usher in a new Golden Age. See results from the Seven Prophets of the Druze Quiz on Sporcle, the best trivia site on the internet! In the Druze scriptural view, Tajalli takes a central stage. Women can opt to wear al-mandīl, a loose white veil, especially in the presence of other people. The Druzites form a religious minority in Jordan of around 32,000, mostly residing in the northwestern part of the country. , Contact between Christian communities (members of the Maronites, Eastern Orthodox, Melkite, and other churches) and the Unitarian Druze led to the presence of mixed villages and towns in Mount Lebanon, Jabal al-Druze, the Galilee region, and Mount Carmel. 100% Upvoted. Those are not granted access to the Druze holy literature or allowed to attend the initiated religious meetings of the ʻuqqāl. Islamic schools and branches allows Muslim men to to be married to multiple women and divorce, contrary to the views of the Druze of monogamous marriage and not allowing divorce. found that the Israeli Druze people of the Mount Carmel region have among the highest rate of the newly evolved ASPM- Haplogroup D, at 52.2% occurrence of the approximately 6,000-year-old allele. While the Shaykh al-ʻAql, which is an official position in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel, is elected by the local community and serves as the head of the Druze religious council, judges from the Druze religious courts are usually elected for this position. The rebellion ended in brutal suppression of the Druze by General Sami Pasha al-Farouqi, significant depopulation of the Hauran region and execution of the Druze leaders in 1910. Hamza gained the support of the Fātimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who issued a decree promoting religious freedom prior to the declaration of the divine call. Log in or sign up to leave a comment log in sign up. The religion was established around 1017 in Egypt and North Africa, when the sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi-Amrih Allah, declared himself the incarnation of God (“Druze… report. Druze principles focus on honesty, loyalty, filial piety, altruism, patriotic sacrifice, and monotheism. Archaeological assessments of the Druze region have also proposed the possibility of Druze descending from Itureans, who had inhabited Mount Lebanon and Golan Heights in late classic antiquity, but their traces fade in the Middle Ages. Druze villages spread and prospered in that region, which under Ma'an leadership so flourished that it acquired the generic term of Jabal Bayt-Ma'an (the mountain home of the Ma'an) or Jabal al-Druze. The Druze religion is a small, old, unique, and mysterious practice. [page needed], Shishakli launched a brutal campaign to defame the Druzes for their religion and politics. The word which is the atom of language communicates qualia between humans and represents the platonic forms in the sensible world. However, al-Darazi ignored Hamza's warnings and continued to challenge the Imam. Only about one-in-five say being Druze is primarily a matter of religion (18%).  The young caliph's regent, Sitt al-Mulk, ordered the army to destroy the movement in 1021. [page needed], During the 18th century, there were two branches of Druze living in Lebanon: the Yemeni Druze, headed by the "Harmouche" and "Alamuddine" families; and the Kaysi Druze, headed by the Jumblatt and Arslan families. The Sultan then sent a force against him, and he was compelled to flee the land and seek refuge in the courts of Tuscany and Naples in 1613 and 1615 respectively. Religions of the world The Druze (a.k.a. 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[ 135 ] self-identify more as Israeli clergy '' in 2004, there is ``. Between humans and represents the platonic forms in the body of a.!
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