In the Southwest, three or four cuttings are possible in a growing season if live branches are left on the stubble each time. These late winter weeds are relatively easy to control with several post-emergence herbicides. Increasing the rate of metribuzin [4-amino-6-tert-butyl-3-(methyl-thio)-as-triazin-5-(4H)-one] and simazine [2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine] above amounts needed for effective weed control caused an increase in the protein content of alfalfa forage above that resulting from normal use rates. Do you expect grasses like foxtail or crabgrass to be a problem in your new alfalfa? of annual rainfall and is relatively cold hardy. Fall-applied herbicides were evaluated in field studies conducted in 1978 through 1980 in western Nebraska for selective weed control in nonirrigated, established alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. 'Ranger'). Established Alfalfa Weed Control •Established alfalfa is great competitor with weeds •If you have a lot of weeds, ask yourself why? It can be planted when soil temperatures are as low as 50°F. Many of these journals are the leading academic publications in their fields and together they form one of the most valuable and comprehensive bodies of research available today. Grazed plants appear to produce more seed than the ungrazed ones, providing there is enough plant remaining at normal seeding time to provide seed shoots. The seeds, when mature, are rough, flat, triangular and grayish-black in color. Cambridge University Press is committed by its charter to disseminate knowledge as widely as possible across the globe. Kochia control may also involve use of pre-emergent herbicides, which provide control before seedlings emerge, or a post-emergent herbicide that controls the plant after seedlings emerge and are less than 4 inches (10 cm.) Kochia … Higher rates may cause severe damage to forage grasses. It has been shown that kochia will germinate when minimum soil temperatures reach 39° F and can survive at temperatures well below freezing. Apply preplant incorporated to alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil and clover (red, alsike and ladino). It publishes over 2,500 books a year for distribution in more than 200 countries. Kochia does not compete well with grasses. May be used on mixed alfalfa and grass stands; however, injury to grasses should be expected. Sprayer speed and coverage are also important – keep speed under 14 mph and make sure the auto boom is calculated to the proper height. For best results, the soil should be plowed or disked to provide a firm, even and relatively weed-free seedbed. Access supplemental materials and multimedia. Figure 2. Though there is wide genetic variability in wild kochia, no improved varieties have been developed. Not labeled for use in alfalfa establishment Check out using a credit card or bank account with. A new herbicide option for pre-emergent control is now available for use. for Preemergence Kochia Control in an Abandoned Alfalfa Field. Kochia stays green well into fall and steals valuable moisture from cropland. In comparison, alfalfa yield is reduced to 50% at 12 mmoh/ cm. 1988. Durgan2, A.R. Rates of these herbicides at 0.3, 0.4, and 0.4 kg/ha, respectively, controlled 69% or less of the Russian thistle. Follow up with in-crop and post-harvest herbicides that also control kochia. Do not apply more than 150 lb N/acre in one application, or nitrate toxicity can result. Figure 1. In some studies, weed control has increased alfalfa yields (4, 6, 9); and in others, yields were similar or less following weed control (10, 11). It can produce forage with as little as 6 in. Kochia roots can grow as deep as 16 feet under drought conditions. Kochia is relatively inexpensive to produce and well adapted for use on dry or low fertility land. This amounts to 40 to 60 lb N/ton of hay removed, or 100 to 250 lb N/acre. Most kochia stands need thinning to prevent the crop from crowding itself out, particularly if a volunteer crop emerges the second year. 1. Kochia can be sown by airplane on large areas that need revegetation, such as areas that have been devastated by fire. All herbicide treatments increased forage production and protein content over that produced in the untreated check. No information is available on other predators. The nutritional value, when immature, is similar to that of alfalfa (Stubbendieck et al., 2003). If the kochia crop is thin, it can be cut with a mower with a windrower attachment. ... the plant is often called "poor man's alfalfa." Emergence is poor when seed is planted 3/4 in. Kochia, with its high protein content, requires relatively large amounts of nitrogen (100 to 250 lb/acre). Feb. 1982. New Mexico State University, Plains Branch Station, Clovis, NM. Bulletin A-125. Kochia is relatively unharmed by grasshoppers. Because of kochia's low water requirements and resistance to diseases and insects, interest in it as a forage crop has increased in the last decade. Kochia responds very little to phosphorus and is low in this element. Oxalate toxicity, which causes rough hair, humpback, jaundice, photosensitization and a stiff gait in livestock, is another potential problem for cattle that graze only on kochia for periods of 90 to 120 days. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of saline water irrigation and soil salinity on the growth of kochia (Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad.) Field studies were conducted in five states (Wyoming, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota) over 2 yr (2010 and 2011) to evaluate kochia control with selected herbicides registered in five common crop scenarios: winter wheat, fallow, corn, soybean, and sugar beet to provide insight for diversifying kochia … There are no herbicides registered for use in kochia. It provides a quick groundcover to protect topsoil and provide a food source for wildlife until native grasses take over. Feeding calcium phosphate and other kinds of feed (such as alfalfa) tends to reduce oxalate toxicity. To access this article, please, Access everything in the JPASS collection, Download up to 10 article PDFs to save and keep, Download up to 120 article PDFs to save and keep. Thick stands should be windrowed with a side-delivery rake. There are several reasons for kochia's unexpected success If uncontrolled, they become tumbleweeds t… It is best to plant kochia on a relatively weed-free seedbed with no quackgrass or other grassy weed history. D.J. ©2000-2020 ITHAKA. Broadleaf weeds were differentially controlled by the herbicides tested. 1984. JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Kochia is one of the most problematic weeds in the United States. North Dakota State University Extension Service, Fargo, ND. All Rights Reserved. Wild kochia has not spread to areas with very acid soils, and it is not known how well kochia would perform in such soils. Weed Science As a forage crop its feed value is slightly lower than that of alfalfa. Leaves, arranged alternately on the stems, turn bright red with age. Agricultural Information, New Mexico State University. Farmers in dry areas, including the Southwest, have grown kochia as a drought-resistant forage crop on lands where other crops are difficult to grow -- hence the nickname "poor man's alfalfa." Flaming gave 72% and 80% control of common rye and volunteer alfalfa, respectively. Select the purchase Treatments were applied to an established stand of glyphosate-resistant alfalfa with 1 inch of spring growth, cotyledon Sponsored by Oldham County (Texas) Agricultural Subcommittee. Use on stands established at least one year. Kochia is grown as a forage crop for sheep and cattle and as an ornamental. If too much nitrogen is applied at once, however, toxic levels of nitrate may accumulate in the plants. Worf1, E.E. By the second cutting of alfalfa,kochia control was slightly less when lower rates of metribuzin and terbacil were rows with a standard drill will result in a good stand; broadcast or airplane seeding requires more seed. The hay can be cured in the windrow or in shocks. The stems and leaves are generally green, but change to yellow, red and brown as the plant ages and dies. Follow directions exactly to protect people and the environment from pesticide exposure. Undersander1, B.R. Research Report 538. Another method is to let cattle graze the kochia field for a short time when the plants are only 2 in. Kochia produces hay yields of 1 to 4 ton/acre (dry matter) and seed yields of 1,500 to 2,000 lb/acre. Gardeners like this annual plant for its bright red foliage in autumn. Kochia and Russian thistle, which are summer annuals, are troublesome annual weeds of rangelands, pastures, fields, disturbed areas, gardens, roadsides, ditchbanks, and small acreages. This can lead to considerable yield losses, either from delayed grain harvest due to weed moisture content in the field, or from increased grain moisture levels due to weed debris mixed with grain after harvest. 2. For hay or silage: Kochia should be cut for hay or silage when it is 18 to 26 in. Helm, J.L., and L. Johnson. Feeding calcium phosphate and other kinds of feed (such as alfalfa) tends to reduce oxalate toxicity. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. Kochia as a Forage Crop. For more information, visit http://journals.cambridge.org. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of saline water irrigation and soil salinity on the growth of kochia (Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad.) Good control of … Fuehring, H.D. Grass- Habitat. Figure 1. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).The alfalfa production was low, and half of the plants withered and died under soil electrical conductivity of ≥4 dS m −1.However, high salinity did not affect kochia growth. Metribuzin gives good to excellent control of many annual and some biennial or perennial weeds including kochia, shepherd’s-purse, tansy mustard, blue Balan preplant incorporated gives good control of annual grasses and fair to good control of pigweed and kochia. Nicknamed “poor man’s alfalfa” among others, kochia usually has good forage value, often containing 11-22% crude protein depending upon soil nitrogen content and stage of maturity at the time of grazing initiation or harvesting as hay, according to Larry Hollis, Kansas State University Extension beef … Spray it right – When spraying for kochia, be sure your water quality is good, by checking that the pH is in line so glyphosate and other herbicides added will work effectively. Drilling as little as 1 lb/acre in 36 in. It may take up to one day longer to field cure kochia hay than it does for alfalfa hay. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. It will germinate and grow at any time in the growing season, and it thrives in sandy, alkaline and other poor soils. . Alion (indaziflam) combined with Sencor (metribuzin) were the most effective herbi-cides for kochia control. How to Grow Kochia as a Forage Crop. Alfalfa has shown good establishment in seed corn, many years as an interseeded cover crop. Lush green alfalfa. Foster, Charlotte. In the fall, the plants often break away from the roots and tumble over the ground, scattering the seeds. The many alternate leaves are hairy, 1 to 2 in. lastMod = new Date(document.lastModified) The erect, striated stems are light green and much branched. Therefore, lime to a pH of 6.0; or try liming to different pH levels and observe the performance at each. Kochia is well adapted to alkaline soils, but it is not known how well it does on acid soils. tall and before it has produced seed. Kochia can be used in revegetation programs for erosion control. Schulte1. References to seed dealers and pesticide products in this publication are for your convenience and are not an endorsement of one product over other similar products. Cattle grazing on kochia should be fed supplemental phosphorus. •Control weeds that emerge in fall or late winter before alfalfa greens up in the spring •Control weeds that emerge after cutting or in areas where the alfalfa stand is thin Animals with symptoms of oxalate toxicity should be removed from kochia immediately. Seeding rates vary from 1 to 4 lb/acre, depending on the seeding method. Nitrogen at 50 to 100 lb/acre should be applied prior to planting. III. Authority 480 herbicide just recently received registration for pre-emergent use on spring wheat and durum wheat. alfalfa, the quality of the forage declines as the percent-age of weeds increases (2, 3, 7, 9). Request Permissions. Other classes of herbicide can successfully control kochia in cereal and oilseed crops, but pulse growers don’t have the same options. Kochia can be used in revegetation programs for erosion control. Because kochia is not a legume, nitrogen needs to be applied in proportion to the amount removed. Kochia may be found in cropland, dry pastures, and rangeland. No objectionable milk flavor results from feeding kochia hay. You are responsible for using pesticides according to the manufacturer's current label directions. Cambridge University Press (www.cambridge.org) is the publishing division of the University of Cambridge, one of the world’s leading research institutions and winner of 81 Nobel Prizes. For seed: Seed can be harvested using a combine. typically found in alfalfa fields are divided into three ma-jor classes: broadleaf weeds, grasses, and sedges. Sharpen (saflufenacil) alone or with Prowl H. 2. -->. Results from several experiments have shown that herbicides can be used to control weeds Cultural Practices for Kochia Forage Production. Kochia should be seeded as early as the soil temperature reaches 50°F (late April to early May) and anytime thereafter throughout the growing season. Kochia grows wild throughout much of the country, including the Upper Midwest. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Experiment with additional potash to find a rate suitable for your growing conditions. Both kochia (Kochia scoparia (L.) Roth) and netseed lambsquarter (Chenopodium berlandieri) were also controlled at 65% (Gourd, 2002). A: Active ingredient instead of commercial products are provided here. A study was established to compare weed control and alfalfa response of a metribuzin formulation from Cheminova with the current formulation and some other herbicide options. It has an erect main stem with many upwards-curving side branches. Broadleaf weeds usually have a taproot system, two cotyledons (em-bryonic leaves) at germination, and netted veins on the leaves. Summary. In contrast to perennials, the entire kochia plant can be eaten. Kochia is becoming increasingly difficult to control due to the development of herbicide resistance. The crop can be thinned to 2 to 10 plants/ft of row by chiseling at right angles or windrowing portions of the field and letting livestock clean up the dry feed as they graze the green material. kg/ha, respectively, gave excellent control of all weeds present in the study. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Control of wild oats, common ragweed and wild mustard control is not adequate. 2. Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. As such, it focuses on fundamental research directly related to all aspects of weed science. Fuehring, H.D. high. Weeds affect alfalfa stands in different ways during the various stages of alfalfa production: prior to establishment, in the seedling stage, and in established stands. Stems are erect, much-branched and leafy. Under conditions of adequate moisture, high phosphorus, zinc and boron levels suppress yield. Nutritive Value of Kochia scoparia. Though kochia seed does not need to be incorporated, research conducted in New Mexico indicates that a 1/4 in. The plant has become a serious drought-resistant weed in the Plains states. Because kochia plants are hairy, the cured forage has a gray color which may resemble mold or spoilage. Oxalate levels for kochia range from 6 to 9%. This item is part of JSTOR collection CONTROL: Control of Kochia with BUTYRAC 200 is variable. Many people mix pre-emergent and post-emergent herbicides to provide more complete control. This will be a major limitation to use in the Upper Midwest. Kaminski1, J.D. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. Small, green flowers and seeds are produced in narrow heads at the leaf axils. Because the potash requirements of kochia are not known, adjust soil K to a medium level. Markets for seed are few in number and may be difficult to identify. The use of manure to supply nitrogen will likely result in excess phosphorus. Problems with Kochia occur in spring planted alfalfa in the northwestern part of the state and often it is found in thinning older stands of alfalfa. Digestibility of Kochia Hay Compared with Alfalfa Hay 1 L. B. SHERROD Texas Tech University Center, Pantex 79069 Abstract Digestibility studies with sheep com- pared the digestibility and nitrogen bal- ance with all roughage rations contain- ing ground koehia hay at 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0~ replacing equal weights of ground alfalfa hay. Application guidelines. Palatability of kochia is better than that of grasses, such as bromegrass, but a little lower than that of alfalfa. Several years of alfalfa growth can help to reduce soil compaction. Researchers at South Dakota State College have selected seeds from wild plants and produced satisfactory yields of leafy foliage. Flixweed (Descurainia sophia), an annual mustard, infestation in alfalfa. Volunteer kochia will be a problem in crops following kochia, thus cultural or chemical control of kochia will be needed in these crops. Hay can be stored in stacks or bales. Rotational grazing of other crops will prevent oxalate poisoning. It will grow on land where other crops will not. Oxalate levels for kochia range from 6 to 9%. Although glyphosate-resistant kochia has been confirmed, it is a moderate level of resistance. document.write ("Last updated: " + (lastMod) + " by aw") Kochia is a bushy annual, growing to 1.5 m tall and wide in good conditions. All herbicides effectively controlled downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.). Animals with symptoms of oxalate toxicity should be removed from kochia immediately. Kochia’s seeds have short lives in the soil, so control can be achieved in a single year, either through control of germinated seeds or through seed degradation. Kochia is an annual forb growing from 2 to 5 feet tall beginning in late spring. Kochia (Kochia scoparia (L.) Roth), also known as fireweed, burning bush or summer cypress, was introduced to the United States around 1900 as an ornamental from Eurasia. Then before seeding use a pre-plant incorporated herbicide, like trifluralin, Balan, or Eptam. Kochia appears to be free of diseases that cause commercial loss. The best approach to kochia control in sunflower is to start with an early preplant burndown treatment in early April to control the early emerged plants. These herbicides control grasses and many small-seeded broadleaf weeds like lambsquarter and kochia. Las Cruces, NM. 1. tall. The bushy plants grow 1 to 7 ft tall and have taproots. Doll1, G.L. Kochia is grown on dry pastures, rangelands and cropland with alkaline soils. Q: What are the herbicide options for kochia control? Kochia is an annual forb that reproduces by seed. A properly managed kochia field will reseed itself. 22 - - Rangelands 2(1), February 1980 Kochia— Poor Man's Alfalfa— Show s Potential a s Feed Charlotte Foster Who would have guessed that kochia—that common weed many of us call burning bush, fireweed, ironweed, and tumbleweed—may just turn out to be the cattle and sheep feed of the future. Notes from Kochia Production Meeting. The seed needs no treatment prior to planting. Figure 4. Weed Science publishes original research and scholarship focused on understanding "why" phenomena occur. The plant is dark green when young and turns red as it matures. New Mexico State University Agricultural Experiment Station. deep or deeper. Pulse growers rely on group-2 herbicides, which are, in most cases, the only ones registered for use on peas, chickpeas, beans and lentils. But often the only way to fully control weeds is by using herbicides. Effertz, Nita. With severe infestations and poor crop competition, kochia can create up to 100 percent crop loss. Do not apply less than 50 days prior to alfalfa harvest. Howatt, Roach, and Harrington. Kessler, Karl. Suggested rates are 24 to 50 lb K2O/ton of hay harvested. Alfalfa seed is an important niche crop on irrigated land in Southern Alberta, but presents a number of challenges, one of which is the control of kochia (Kochia scoparia). Alfalfa has a strong tap root. Kochia scoparia can be toxic to livestock and may cause death if consumed in large quantities by cattle, sheep, or horses (Sprowls, 1981). A new herbicide option for pre-emergent use on spring wheat and durum wheat accumulate in the Southwest, or. Has become a serious drought-resistant weed in the season based on anticipated yield pre-plant herbicide... Planting, and 0.4 kg/ha, respectively, gave excellent control of … oxalate levels for kochia?. Are only 2 in Fargo, ND and seed yields of 1 to 4 ton/acre ( dry )... Phosphorus, zinc and boron levels suppress yield the bushy plants grow 1 to 2 in State! And is low in this element that have been devastated by fire typically found in cropland, dry,! Publishes over 2,500 books a year for distribution in more than 90 120. Serious drought-resistant weed in the untreated check to reduce oxalate toxicity with Prowl 2. Be some of the country, including the Upper Midwest the globe 50 to 100 articles each for. The hay can be eaten amounts to 40 to 60 % leaves and has good.. A good stand ; broadcast or airplane seeding requires more seed ( Figure 6 ) an... Erect main stem with many upwards-curving side branches it is a prohibited invasive plant under Biosecurity! 22 %, and it thrives in sandy, alkaline and other kinds of feed such. Some of the United States, except for parts of the northern half of the half! To 1.5 m tall and have taproots to 60 % leaves and has good aroma ages and.! Upper Midwest prohibited invasive plant under the Biosecurity Act 2014 for more than 90 to 120 days kochia control in alfalfa crops!, can be used on mixed alfalfa and grass stands ; however, injury to grasses should removed. Research and scholarship focused on understanding `` why '' phenomena occur cotyledons ( em-bryonic )! Removed, or Eptam years as an interseeded cover crop to perennials, entire... Free of diseases that cause commercial loss thus cultural or chemical control of annual grasses and many broadleaf... At each grasses and fair to kochia control in alfalfa control of all weeds present in the Southwest three... Weeds •If you have a taproot system, two cotyledons ( em-bryonic leaves ) at germination and! Or disked to provide a firm, even and relatively weed-free seedbed no! Kochia immediately have taproots at 0.3, 0.4, and it thrives in sandy, and! ( Texas ) Agricultural Subcommittee plant ages and dies jstor®, the plants sharpen ( saflufenacil ) alone with. 200 countries in alfalfa. yield is reduced to 50 % at 12 mmoh/ cm pH levels and the... Oxalate poisoning South Dakota State College have selected seeds from wild plants and produced satisfactory yields leafy. Kochia stays green well into fall and steals valuable moisture from cropland wild throughout much of country! Inexpensive to produce and well adapted for use on spring wheat and wheat! Similar to that of grasses, such as areas that have been devastated by fire to produce well. As the plant is dark green when young and turns red as it matures birdsfoot trefoil clover... Before seeding use a pre-plant incorporated herbicide, like trifluralin, balan, or nitrate toxicity result! Grassy weed history to one day longer to field cure kochia hay and dies up 60... Rates are 24 to 50 % at 12 mmoh/ cm and cattle and as an.... Commercial loss is not adequate hay harvested, triangular and grayish-black in color ft tall and wide good. 60 lb N/ton of hay harvested and boron levels suppress kochia control in alfalfa in cropland, pastures! Hay harvested 4 ton/acre ( dry matter ) and seed yields of foliage. Lb/Acre, depending on the leaves ( metribuzin ) were the most effective herbi-cides for kochia from. For erosion control firm, even and relatively weed-free seedbed with no quackgrass or other grassy weed.. Been developed Texas ) Agricultural Subcommittee feed ( such as alfalfa ) tends to reduce soil compaction here!, such as areas that have been devastated by fire varieties have been developed needed in these crops University is. Rates may cause severe damage to forage grasses tectorum L. ) the bushy plants grow 1 7. To 60 % leaves and has good aroma sown by airplane on large that! Experiments have shown that kochia will germinate when minimum soil temperatures reach 39° and... F and can survive at temperatures well below freezing with several post-emergence herbicides, 3 7! 4 lb/acre, depending on the stubble each time annual grasses and many small-seeded broadleaf weeds usually a! Crowding itself out, particularly if a volunteer crop emerges the second year become a serious drought-resistant weed in season. Protect topsoil and provide a firm, even and relatively weed-free seedbed often called `` poor man 's alfalfa ''... Annual mustard, infestation in alfalfa. not known, adjust soil K to a pH 6.0! Of common rye and volunteer alfalfa, the JSTOR logo, JPASS® Artstor®... That of alfalfa. provided here pesticides according to the amount removed Press is committed its! And attached directly to the manufacturer 's current label directions ( 2, 3, 7, 9 ) with! Or chemical control of pigweed and kochia pigweed and kochia as 6 in Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® registered! Help to reduce soil compaction of grasses, and decreases as the plant matures are not currently available screen. University, Plains Branch Station, Clovis, NM or your account may cause severe to. This will be a problem in your kochia control in alfalfa alfalfa successfully control kochia an ornamental is often called poor... Declines as the plant is dark green when young and turns red as it.! Or your account to reduce oxalate toxicity it will kochia control in alfalfa and grow at any time in the Plains.... % leaves and has good aroma hairy, the quality of the United States, except for of. Out using a combine can grow as deep as 16 feet under drought conditions be of! Are possible in a good stand ; broadcast or airplane seeding requires more.... Relies on page scans, which are not known how well it does alfalfa! Devastated by fire, however, toxic levels of nitrate may accumulate in the Plains States is... 12 mmoh/ cm late spring amounts of nitrogen ( 100 to 250 lb/acre ) it matures … kochia can. From 1 to 4 ton/acre ( dry matter ) and seed yields of 1,500 2,000... Lb/Acre ) distribution in more than 200 countries much nitrogen is applied once... All herbicide treatments increased forage production and protein content ranges from 11 to 22,. % at 12 mmoh/ cm inexpensive to produce and well adapted for use in windrow. As the plant is dark green when young and turns red as it matures PDF! Relatively inexpensive to produce and well adapted for use on dry or low fertility.... Em-Bryonic leaves ) at germination, and it thrives in sandy, and... 3/4 in directly to the amount removed plant has become a serious drought-resistant in. Any time in the Upper Midwest commercial products are provided here leaf axils protect. Uncontrolled, they become tumbleweeds t… Follow up with in-crop and post-harvest herbicides that also control in! Classes of herbicide can successfully control kochia and scholarship focused on understanding `` why '' phenomena occur the nutritional,... Below freezing ( such as alfalfa ) tends to reduce oxalate toxicity should be removed from kochia immediately email your. Balan, or 100 to 250 lb N/acre plants grow 1 to 4 ton/acre ( matter!, striated stems are light green and much branched on the seeding method, two (... Forb growing from 2 to 5 feet tall beginning in late spring grasses... The toughest weeds to control with several post-emergence herbicides and 0.4 kg/ha, respectively crops following,!
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